Prostate Cancer Information [Infographics and Videos]

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Prostate is an accessory gland of male reproductive system situated in the pelvis beneath the urinary bladder and anterior to the rectum. It is about the size of a walnut in young males. Its size increases with age, with most rapid increase occurring after puberty (under the influence of androgenic hormones, especially testosterone) until the age of 30 years, approximately. It provides the passage for urethra through its center and contributes about 25% to the volume of the ejaculate. It also provides a passage for the ejaculatory ducts of the seminal vesicles (a pair of glands situated behind the prostate), which drain their secretions (that make-up most of the semen volume) into the prostatic urethra.

It consists of mainly 3 zones: a transition zone (surrounding the urethra and constituting about 10% of the prostate); a central zone (surrounding the ejaculatory ducts and constituting around 25% of the prostate); and a peripheral zone (incompletely covering the other two zones and constituting bulk of the prostate).

Adenocarcinoma (affecting secretory cells of the prostate) is the most commonly encountered (more than 95% of all cases) prostate cancer.

Prostate Cancer Infographics

Risk Factors

Most common risk factors for prostate cancer are advanced age, race and ethnicity, being obese or overweight, dietary factors and family history.

prostate cancer risk factors infographic

Symptoms

Most common symptoms with which it presents are weak or interrupted flow of urine, increased frequency of urination, painful or burning urination, trouble starting urination, blood in urine or semen, etc.

Symptoms and signs

Investigations

Digital rectal examination, transrectal ultrasound, PSA, and biopsy help in confirmation of diagnosis, whereas, imaging tests (CT/MRI/PSMA PET) are required to stage the disease.

investigations for diagnosis and staging

TNM Staging

T Staging (T1 and T2)

T staging describes the locoregional extent of the tumor. It may be T1 to T4 depending on extent of tumor involvement of prostate gland and infiltration of surrounding structures.

T staging - T1 and T2

 

T Staging (T3 and T4)

T staging - T3 and T4

 

N and M Staging

N is the nodal staging that may be N0 or N1 depending on the involvement of regional lymph nodes by tumor. And M is the metastatic staging that can be M0 or M1 depending on the presence of distant tumor spread.

N and M staging

 

Treatment

Localised and Locally Advanced Disease

Localised and locally advanced prostate cancer may be classified into very low or low risk, intermediate risk and high or very high risk. Treatment is done accordinglyy, as described in the infographic below.

Localised | Locally Advanced disease Treatment

 

Metastatic Disease

Treatment for hormone sensitive metastatic prostate cancer depends on site and number of metastases. High volume and low volume disease is treated as discussed below.

metastatic disease treatment

 

Castrate Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC)

Disease progression while on androgen deprivation therapy or hormonal therapy is called as castrate or hormone resistant prostate cancer. Treatment for the same depends on whether it is localised or metastatic CRPC, as discussed below.

Treatment of Castrate Resistant Prostate Cancer

 

Prostate Cancer Videos

Meet Mr. Poppy – Prostate Cancer patient

Watch the video below where CancerBro meets Mr Poppy, who has recently been diagnosed with prostate cancer.

 

Risk Factors

Risk factors for prostate cancer are explained below.

 

Symptoms and Signs

Symptoms and signs with which prostate cancer presents commonly.

 

Prostate Cancer Natural History

Understand the natural history of prostate cancer, how it progresses after being detected, and what is it’s usual course.

 

Investigations for Diagnosis and Staging

Following video explains the investigations that are required to confirm the diagnosis and stage the disease.

 

Anatomy of Prostate

It is important to know the anatomy of prostate and surrounding structures to understand the staging in a better way.

 

TNM Staging

TNM staging is explained below in an easy to understand manner.

 

Treatment

Observation vs Active Surveillance

The video below describes the difference between Observation and Active Surveillance and which one is preferred for early stage prostate cancer patients.

Localised and Locally Advanced Disease Treatment

Here we will discuss the treatment for cancer that is localised to prostate or invaded locoregionally to nearby structures.

 

Androgen Deprivation Therapy

Androgen hormones are main driving force for prostate cancer cells to grow. Here we discuss various modalities (medical and surgical) to deprive the cancer cells off androgens.

 

Castrate Resistant Prostate Cancer Treatment

Here we discuss the various treatment modalities for prostate cancer that has progressed on hormonal therapy.

 

Recurrent Prostate Cancer Treatment

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